Dyslexia is a learning disorder that involves difficulty reading due to problems identifying speech, sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words.
Dyslexia is the term used when people have trouble learning to read, despite having an otherwise normal intellect.
It is a type of learning disability also called Reading Disability; it affects areas of the brain that processes language.
What Causes Dyslexia?
Cause is unknown.
Genes and brain differences play a role
It runs in families about 40percent of sibling of people with dyslexia struggle with reading and as many as 49percent of parents of patients with dyslexia have it too.
Another cause is interplay between genetics and the environment (exposure to hormones during pregnancy, nutrition, exposure to toxins, infections, traumatic injury, parental care, home setting, peer relationships, school experience and culture)
Other modifiers would include motivation, anxiety and depression
What Happens in Dyslexia?
Most people think that dyslexia causes people to reverse letters and numbers and see words backwards.
The main problem in dyslexia is trouble recognizing phonemes; these are the basic sounds of speech (For example, the b sound in bat is a phoneme). So it is quite difficult to make the connection between the sound and the letter symbol for that sound, this implies that it is not easy for an individual with dyslexia to identify the sound of a letter in relation to that letter, and to blend sounds into words.
This makes it hard to recognize short, familiar words or to sound out longer words, this is because word reading takes more time and focus as the meaning of the word is often lost, and reading comprehension is poor.
People with dyslexia have trouble spelling; they also might have trouble expressing themselves in writing and even speaking.
Symptoms of Dyslexia
The symptoms vary between young children, teens and adults. The following symptoms do not guarantee that an individual has dyslexia, but if the individual exhibits few of these symptoms, he/she should be tested for dyslexia. They include:
- Difficulty in learning new words fast, forming words and also confusing words that sounds alike.
- The problem of remembering or naming letters, numbers and colors.
- Difficulty in learning nursery rhymes or playing rhyming games.
- A child in school reading below the expected level for his or her age.
- Problems with processing or understanding what he or she hears in class.
- Difficulty in identifying, seeing, and hearing the difference and similarities in letters and words.
- Experiencing difficulty in spelling out words.
- A teen or an adult finding it difficult to memorize things.
Employing a specially trained teacher, tutor, or reading specialist to help students with dyslexia learn how to read, spell, and manage the condition.
Emotional support is very important. People with dyslexia often get frustrated because no matter how hard they try, they can’t seem to keep up with other students, they might feel that they’re not as smart as their peers. Their friends, families and teachers should not put down their spirit, instead they should support them to go at their own comfortable pace. Family and friends can help people with dyslexia by understanding that they aren’t stupid or lazy, and that they are trying as hard as they can.
Family and friends can help people with dyslexia by understanding that they aren’t stupid or lazy, and that they are trying as hard as they can, as it is important to recognize and appreciate their strengths, whether they’re in sports, drama, art and creating solutions to problems.
Rule out medical causes
Use screening methods.
Counseling of the individual and parents
Use of community resources academic, recreational and leisure programs for people eg special camps
In conclusion, it is important to know that Dyslexia is not a disease,
and there's no particular treatment for it. People with dyslexia shouldn't feel limited in their academic or career choices.
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